Colloid cyst – a benign slow growing tumor, which contains colloidal (gelatinous) liquid encapsulated cells of connective tissue. Colloid Cysts can be formed in the thyroid and brain.
Colloidal cyst in the brain is formed so that by blocking the flow of the circulating fluid, leads to the development of hydrocephalus. Increasing the pressure exerted by a cyst on the brain, it can lead to the emergence of a hernia or the sudden death of the patient.
The colloid cyst in the thyroid gland has a more favorable course. The main problems that it can cause – this abscess and inflammation. In rare cases, such cysts may be malignant in nature.
The basic method of treatment of colloid cysts – surgery.
The reasons colloid cyst
So far it is not known exactly which cells provoke the development of a colloid cyst of the brain, but found that the cyst is formed at the stage of embryogenesis during a bookmark of the central nervous system. This type of cyst may remain asymptomatic in the human brain during childhood and adolescence, and is found only in adulthood, when it reaches a considerable size.
The colloid cyst of the thyroid gland is formed as a result of microbleeds, hyperplasia and degeneration of its follicles.
The main factors that contribute to the development of tumors are:
- The lack of iodine in the body;
- Long-term neuro-emotional overload;
- Non-compliance with the regime of the day and sleep defective;
- Violation of acid-base balance;
- High physical activity;
- The frequent pregnancies;
- Cold condition (living in the northern regions);
- The X-ray irradiation.
Symptoms Colloid cysts
Typically, colloid cyst of the thyroid gland occurs without symptoms. When detected several cysts of this type, say of a nodal colloid goiter.
The symptoms of cysts occur with increasing it in size. Patients are beginning to complain of sore and feeling a lump in the throat, cough, difficulty swallowing and breathing. Also, there may be: a sense of pressure and pain in the neck.
There are the following degree of colloid goiter:
- Zero – goiter is absent;
- First – visually enlarged thyroid gland is not observed, palpable nodes;
- the second – significantly increase the cancer, as well as the deformation of the patient’s neck.
The colloid cyst of the brain for a long time not seen. Its main clinical signs caused by the acute development of hydrocephalus and can manifest persistent headache, accompanied at the peak of a wave of nausea and vomiting, loss of consciousness, a sharp decline in visual acuity, double items.
Also, the symptoms of this disease include:
Reduced memory on real events;
- gait disturbance;
- The mental disorder;
- Increased tendon reflexes;
- loss of coordination;
Most of the clinically significant colloid cysts of the brain have a diameter of 1.5 cm.
Diagnostics colloid cyst
To the diagnosis of a colloid cyst of the thyroid gland first conduct its palpation, in which the determined one or more cysts elastic solid consistency.
Once this patient is referred for an ultrasound exam, which confirmed the presence of cysts, said its size and structure.
To determine whether there festering performed fine needle biopsy with subsequent histological examination of the contents of the cyst. But a preliminary diagnosis can be made in form and content neoplasms (if colloidal cyst type, its content will be yellowish and viscous).
When performing needle biopsy can be performed aspiration of the accumulated liquid. Most of these cysts after removing their contents are fallen down and cease to accumulate fluid.
In addition, to assess the extent of abnormalities in the cancer patient is assigned to perform laboratory tests of blood on its content of thyroid hormones (TSH, T3, T4).
If colloid cyst of the thyroid gland is large, then it assigned a computed tomography. If you have symptoms of compression of the neck structures, held laringo- and bronchoscopy.
The best method of diagnosis of a colloid cyst of the brain is magnetic resonance imaging. But it so happens that the cyst is izodensnoy brain MRI and its diagnosis is better to use a CT scan. If MRI can clearly determine the localization of the cyst and its location relative cerebral structures.
When imaging in the presence of a colloid cyst of the brain when performing MRI or CT observed tumor, which is usually located in the anterior of the third ventricle, where it blocks the opening of Monroe, hydrocephalic and causes the expansion of one of the lateral ventricle.
Treatment of colloid cysts
The colloidal cysts start to treat thyroid with performing the puncture and removal of its contents, followed sclerosis to improve the adhesion of its walls. But in that case rapidly accumulates in the cyst fluid, the surgical intervention is required.
To the treatment of colloid cysts of the small sizes used conservative methods of using drugs iodine and thyroid hormones. If the cyst is inflamed, it is assigned to an anti-inflammatory and antibiotic treatment.
Indications for the removal of this type of thyroid cysts are large size formation, compression of the structures of the neck, the constant accumulation of fluid.
To the treatment of colloid cysts of the brain, which is accompanied by severe clinical symptoms, surgery is used. To this end, in neurosurgery using minimally invasive techniques, which give good results.
To date, it is not precisely determined which method of surgery for this condition is the best.
There are the following options for surgery in a colloid cyst of the brain:
- Transkalloznye access;
- transcortical access;
- Stereotactic drainage;
- Ventrikuloskopicheskoe removal.
Surgery is usually performed with endoscopic technique with access to the hemispheric and inter-hemispheric areas of the brain. At relapse of the disease in patients assigned a second operation to puncture and emptying the cyst cavity, which is then injected sclerosant providing sticking its walls.
Thus, colloid cyst, depending on the place of its localization may be more or less dangerous to the health and life of the patient. But in any case of considerable size or cyst tend to progress, the only way to prevent dangerous complications is its deletion.