Thyroid nodules are focal thyroid formations of all sizes. They usually diagnose by palpation or by imaging examinations.
Thyroid nodules are thyroid cysts. As it often happens, they mean cavities filled with liquid contents. Thyroid cysts can exist long time without any symptoms. Then discomfort of various specific causes appears in the throat. And the thyroid nodules becomes visible when looking at the neck. Being an endocrine tumor, or apudoma, thyroid nodules entail the development of hyperthyroidism. Which can also be considered as a symptom. The diagnostic sequence, when there is suspecting of thyroid nodules or thyroid cyst, includes ultrasound, nodules biopsy and hormonal tests.
The nodules and cysts of the thyroid gland, and they can be asymptomatic for a long time. But with an increase in size they cause “compartment syndrome” adjacent structures of the neck. These means irregularities in the thyroid gland, asthma, hoarseness, painful swallowing, sore throat, pain in the area. The most dangerous complication of the nodules are inflammation and suppuration, also knots which are malignant transformations.
A bit of statistics about thyroid nodules
Do you know that 10% of the world have different focal thyroid formation?
The nodules are the most common disorders of the thyroid gland. And it is 4-8 times more common in women. The frequency and amount produced in the thyroid gland of nodes increases with age. The reasons for the formation of the nodules occurring in the thyroid gland are the genetic predisposition to their development, iodine deficiency in food and water, the toxic effects of iron on varnishes and paints, solvents, gasoline, phenols, lead, radiation emission and radiation therapy.
Nodes in the thyroid gland can be single (solitary) and multiple; autonomous toxic ( excessively produce hormones) or calm, non-toxic.
The thyroid gland may develop in a variety of morphological forms nodules, with most of them is benign (nodular colloid goiter, adenoma, thyroid cyst).There are both benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
Why do thyroid nodules appear?
Thyroid cysts can form as a result of microbleeds, degeneration or hyperplasia follicular cancer. Usually the cyst doesn’t affect the gland function. The dysfunction occurs only during the development of the cysts in comparison with other thyroid diseases. The nodules are mostly benign cysts, and in extremely rare cases they are or they turn into malignant thyroid tumors. THe malignants usually reach large sizes.
Clinical thyroid cysts behave differently. Sometimes observed for years without negative dynamics, sometimes rapidly increase in size or disappear spontaneously.
Stages of development of thyroid nodules
Developing sequentials of thyroid nodules differ in staging. They are determined by their degree of echogenicity on ultrasound:
- izoehogennoe homogeneous unit. The density of the contents of a node corresponds to the surrounding tissues of the thyroid gland. On stage inehogennosti there is a growing circulation and expansion of blood vessels surrounding the node.
- izoehogennoe heterogeneous node:
- with minor modifications tissues
- with severe tissues changes
- with hypoechoic inclusions (cystic sites)
Izoehogennoe heterogeneous nodes are formed as the depletion and destruction of thyroid cells and follicles.
- hypo- or anechoic node. Characterized by a complete destruction of the tissue site, filling the cavity with fluid and damaged cells, which leads to the formation of cysts thyroid.
- the contents of the cyst stage of the dispersal of the thyroid gland;
- stage scarring cysts of the thyroid gland.
The process of stepwise conversion of thyroid nodules is durable. Its speed depends on the size of the node, the immune system, the state compensatory and adaptive mechanisms of the thyroid gland and the whole body. To speed up the process of thyroid cysts healing sometimes sclerotization is necessary.
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