Thyroid nodules can bring along a lot of problems. The earlier the patient approaches a doctor, the bigger is the chance for successful treatment. Know 7 thyroid nodules symptoms that are reasons to make the appointment. The doctor will start thyroid nodules diagnosis to decide on the best way to treat the disease. Here is what the patient should expect when visit a hospital.
Thyroid nodules diagnosis – what to expect
There are several ways to make the observation. The main method of thyroid nodules diagnosis is getting the image using ultrasound.
With the help of ultrasound specialists determine the size and structure of the cyst. As well as characteristics of the surrounding tissues and whether they are healthy. This method allows not only to accurately diagnose the cyst, but to recognise adenoma, nodular goiter and other diseases.
Biopsy, as a thyroid nodules diagnosis, is performed to determine type of the cyst and exclude malignancy. The biopsy is held under ultrasound using a fine needle. The procedure is not particularly difficult and requires only local anesthesia. For more accurate thyroid nodule diagnosis the material is taken from several parts of the cyst or different nodes.
Results obtained with the thyroid cyst diagnosis divide the cysts by content type:
- Yellow, purple or dark brown fluid in the cyst indicates uncomplicated case;
- Presence of pus in the cyst evidence inflammation.
The samples are examined microscopically to check for cancer cells. Thyroid benign tumors are characterised by glandular cells unchanged. This is the results in 60% of cases.
Biopsy confirms the malignancies in 5% of cases.
The thyroid nodules diagnosis may be accompanied with the content evacuation followed by introduction sclerosing agents into the cavity. This method can significantly reduce the number of further surgical procedures and provide recovery at an early stage.
The puncture is performed under ultrasound. It lows percentage of the unsuccessful operations and injuries in healthy tissues. Analysing the content of the cysts is estimating the rate of abnormal cells that indicate development of malignant cancer process.
As additional methods of thyroid cyst nodules diagnosis a doctor applies:
- Computer tomography to determine the structure of large cysts;
- Angiography for prevention of vascular complications;
- Laryngoscopy when hoarseness or other voice changes appear;
- Bronchoscopy to assess the condition of the trachea;
- Control the level of thyroid hormones.
Thyroid nodules symptoms – 6 important signs
Patients with the small cysts (up to 3 mm) do not notice any thyroid nodules symptoms and feel perfect. Most of them know about the disease only after a doctor saw it at the examination held by another reason.
Thyroid nodules symptoms appear as the size increases, and the cyst becomes more pronounced. The first manifestation of progressive cyst is a “lump” in patient’s throat. At the same time it can be easily felt through the skin.
Other common thyroid nodules symptoms include:
- Shortness of breath (due to compression of the trachea);
- Pain (caused by cancer it can spread to the jaw and ear);
- Pain when swallow or inability to swallow;
- Change the timbre of the voice.
The disease development is divided into several stages:
- The first one is for formation, which is asymptomatic. The disease at this stage is found occasionally during routine inspection;
- Growth stage. In case of large fluid volume in the cavity, the cysts gradually grow in size. The increasing leads to the development of specific symptoms. The presence of the disease may be suspected by visual inspection. The thyroid nodules diagnosis is easily confirmed by laboratory tests;
- Self treatment. Under satisfactory conditions the immune system handles the disease independently without serious disorders.
Malignant thyroid nodules symptoms
The cysts can turn into cancer. Malignant formations have dense consistency and rapid uncontrolled growth. It is also noticed that the malignant course of the disease often accompanied with changes in voice due to the rapid growth of the cysts.
One of the common accompanying symptom of the disease is dysfunction of the thyroid gland with increased or decreased production of hormones. As a result patients have chronic fatigue, weight loss, deterioration of the immune system. With the development of these thyroid nodules symptoms patients should undergo thyroid nodules diagnosis to avoid cancer progress.
Altered tissue swallowing complicates the flows in the cysts and causes bacterial flora abnormalities. All these lead to inflammatory changes and accumulation of pus. Symptoms of the infections are growing acute pain in the neck, swelling, fever. A specific malignant thyroid nodules symptom is the increase in cervical lymph nodes.