What is a cyst tooth. Types of cysts of the tooth. Treatment of cysts tooth.

October 19, 2015


If your teeth look healthy, but the patient does not have any complaint, it is not always indicative of the overall health of the oral cavity. There are pathologies that on rannyih stages of development occur without obvious clinical symptoms, but can lead to serious consequences. Among these diseases should be called a cyst.

What is a cyst tooth?

Cyst tooth – a tumor formation, which occurs under certain conditions and is hollow with shells and purulent contents. Externally, the cyst is covered by connective tissue, and the inside is lined with stratified epithelium. Its size can range from about 5 millimeters to a few centimeters. In the presence of a cyst, which size is less than 0.5 cm, say about granuloma. It is in the progression of inflammation due to accumulation of cystic content, epithelial proliferation and destruction of bone tissue increases in size, becoming a full-fledged cyst at the root of the tooth.


The cyst is the result of an infection that spreads to the root canals. Most often it happens after the untimely or improper treatment of caries. In this case, the microorganisms fall into the slurry and cause its inflammation, infection and spread beyond the tooth provokes the formation of hard shell capsules and inflammatory contents.

Causes of cysts include the presence of mechanical trauma, malformations and infectious diseases of the oral cavity and nasopharynx. Incorrect installation of the crown food can get under it and become a source of bacteria, which further leads to the formation of cysts.

Improper filling root canals in the treatment of periodontitis and pulpitis also leads to the penetration of infection beyond the tooth. Thus, statistics tooth brushes with 65-70% of cases formed of the fact that the channel is not sealed to the top of the roots, so nezaplombirovannyh stations proliferate microorganisms and inflammation occurs.

Species cysts

These types of education are the following:

  • root brush – the most common, arises as a consequence of chronic periodontitis;
  • follicular – formed from the follicle, which is placed around the dental crown. This type of cyst is diagnosed when cutting tooth;
  • residual – occurs after a tooth extraction;
  • keratokista – develops when disrupted the normal development of the teeth;
  • retromolar – often observed in chronic inflammation of the gums and severe eruption of wisdom teeth.

The clinical picture

The characteristic feature of this disease is that it is developing slowly. When the small size of the cyst clinical manifestations are virtually absent. Availability of education is diagnosed by chance during X-ray examination of the jaw, in which visualized oval structure with defined edges.

If the symptoms of the cyst of the tooth is missing, it does not mean that it is safe. Thus, this leads to the destruction of tumor jaw bone, and with further infection – to the inflammatory process. The patient thus deteriorating health, decreases immunity. When the brush size greater than 2 cm characterized by the following complaints:

  • soreness and swelling of the gums;
  • pain when biting food;
  • headache;
  • swollen lymph nodes in the neck;
  • temperature increase;
  • the patient may notice a slight displacement of the tooth and its darkening.

How dangerous cyst at the root of the tooth?

Initially, this structure prevents the spread of infection throughout the body, but long-term flows without appropriate treatment of complications can occur:

  • periodontitis – is an inflammation that involves not only the tooth tissue, but also extends to the bone tissue in the apex of the root. It provokes the loss of teeth;
  • Flux – a disease that occurs with severe pain accompanied by swelling of the mucosa and the cheek, give a considerable amount of pus;
  • abscess – purulent inflammation of the tissues of the neck and face. Especially dangerous are such consequences for pregnant women, because they have been at high risk of infection and the overall greater restrictions during therapy;
  • osteomyelitis of the jaw bones;
  • loss patients teeth;
  • pathological fractures of the jaws;
  • In advanced stages of the cyst gets symptoms of benign tumors or malignant nature of education;
  • septicemia (blood poisoning with lethal completion).

How to treat a cyst?

When this disease used therapeutic or surgical methods. Therapeutic methods appropriate to apply in cases where the root canals were not yet sealed with poorly or when they are sealed along the entire length of the channel. Surgical techniques are used in cases where a crank pin channel stands at nedoplombirovannoy root apex, and when the brush size larger than 1 cm, which causes considerable pain and swelling of the gums. Surgically treated and education, which are due to the fact that the broken tooth under crown.

It should be noted that conservative therapy has certain peculiarities. If a root canal is not yet the sealed, removed from the tooth pulp and spend tooling. In the presence of poor sealing repeat it. In any case be sure to carry out multiple rinsing a root canal antiseptic for effective cleaning of the pus. Also the medicine is injected directly into the cyst cavity. After that temporarily seal up channels of special medical paste with antiseptic action.

The therapy without surgery can last for a long time (up to 3 months). After treatment, patients do rentgensnimok control. When the positive dynamics can proceed to a permanent canal filling or setting the seal on the crown of the tooth.

Many patients are interested in the question of whether it is possible to save a tooth in the presence of cysts. There is an operation – resection of the root apex, which actually allows you to get rid of the cyst, but at the same time to keep the teeth without damaging them. This manipulation is performed under local anesthesia. At first incision on the gums, and then a small hole in the bone tissue in the apex of the root, then brush with the tip of the tooth root, and cut off the drill is removed, the empty space is filled with a synthetic bone tissue and sutured the wound. After the operation the doctor prescribes antibiotics and antiseptic rinse.


A radical method is to remove the tooth together with a cyst. It is conducted very rarely, because to date there are other zubosohranyayuschie surgery. Among them it is worth mentioning the use of a laser. It provides local anesthesia and the introduction into the cavity of the cyst special thin surgical tube. Laser radiation dissolves the surrounding tissue, after which they are removed by a vacuum device. Treatment of cysts laser is extremely effective, as it involves the impact on the entire amount of abnormal tissue.

If sum up, it is safe to say that the periodic inspection of the dentist is the key to good oral health. Timely detection and removal of cysts, therapy comorbidities helps prevent a number of serious complications, allows you to save your teeth strong and healthy, but also helps maintain the overall health of patients.

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