Cervical cyst. Causes and symptoms, removal

November 5, 2015

Often, when examining the organs of the small pelvis, women are diagnosed with a cyst of the cervix or a nabotova cyst. This phenomenon is very common, so many women are looking for more information about the disease. Why do cervical cysts develop? What symptoms are accompanied by a similar condition? How dangerous can a tumor be? What treatments are most effective? Answers to these questions will be useful to many readers.

Brief description of the anatomical structure of the cervical cyst

To understand what is cervical cyst, first of all it is necessary to consider the anatomy of the uterus. The cervix is ​​the lower segment of the body that is narrowed to the vagina. This is a kind of hollow tube, inside which lies the cervical canal, which, in fact, connects the uterus and vagina. The part of the cervix that extends into the vaginal cavity is usually the site of the formation of cysts. It is covered with stratified squamous epithelium. In turn, the cervical canal is lined with one layer of cylindrical epithelium. The outer mouth of the cervix is ​​also surrounded by the openings of the tubular glands of Nabothian, which produce a special mucous secretion that is responsible for protecting the cervix and uterus canal from pathogenic microorganisms

cervical cyst structure

What causes cervical cyst?

Why do women have cysts of this kind? The reasons may be different, so you should consider them more carefully:

Obstruction of the glandular outflow often occurs during an infectious-inflammatory process. During this period, the glands begin to produce a large amount of mucus in order to “flush” the infection from the cervical wall and maintain normal functioning of the cervical epithelium. Against these processes, the likelihood of blockage is higher. And the infection can infect the glands themselves, which leads to the appearance of thick, sometimes purulent discharge.

Risk factors may be associated with mechanical tissue damage in this area, for example, during labor, abortion, dilatation and curettage, and other gynecological procedures.

Cervical cysts are often formed against the background of hormonal changes – whether they are natural physiological processes (pregnancy, menopause) and various diseases associated with disruption of normal hormonal levels.

Symptoms of cyst

Of course, many women are interested in questions about whether there are any specific features that are worth paying attention to. In fact, these tumors are rarely accompanied by severe pain or noticeable symptoms. Single cervical cysts usually develop imperceptibly and have no obvious symptoms. Usually they are accidentally discovered during gynecological examinations.

But large tumors or multiple cysts can cause some problems. In particular, they begin to block the lumen of the cervix. In such cases, women complain of abdominal pain before and during menstruation. Also, doctors record frequent cases when such a blockage leads to the inability to conceive a child or even infertility.

How dangerous are cervical cysts?

For the most part, such a tumor is not considered dangerous. However, some risks exist. In particular, the presence of cysts increases the risk of inflammatory diseases and the susceptibility of the reproductive system to various infections. In addition, inflammation of the cyst is possible, with suppuration of its contents, then rupture and discharge of purulent mass into nearby tissues and internal organs. Cysts can cover the greater lumen of the cervical canal, which leads to stagnation of fluid in the uterus, as well as infertility.

Modern diagnostic methods

First of all, we need a thorough examination and diagnosis. Usually, cervical cyst glands can be found during a routine pelvic examination. Using a mirror, a gynecologist can see single or multiple small lesions on the cervical mucosa, which are often located at the entrance to the cervical canal.

Since it is important to detect not only the cyst, but also the causes of their development, women prescribe additional tests. In particular, it is necessary to make a smear from the vagina with the help of microflora and conduct tests for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases. Sometimes it is necessary to pass a complete blood count, as well as check the level of hormones. If you suspect a malignant tissue biopsy.

Often, patients are prescribed colposcopy – an examination of the internal genital organs with a special magnifying tool. During the procedure, the doctor can examine the cyst more closely, determine the presence of inflammation, erosion, necrosis, etc.

colposcopy of cervical cyst

Do I need any specific treatment?

Women who have cervical cysts are found interested in the question of what treatment is needed in this case. The choice depends on the doctor. Sometimes, when it comes to the formation of a small size, a specialist may advise dynamic observation – there are cases when these cysts disappear by themselves.

However, complete therapy is often required, which may include drug treatment and surgical procedures, depending on the patient’s condition and the presence of concomitant diseases.

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