Kidney Cyst: general description, classification

October 12, 2015


A cyst is a kidney tumor, which is formed by the upper layer of the kidney, the type of tumor it is cavernous, the nature – a benign, however, under certain conditions, there is a risk of malignancy. Cyst of kidney, whose symptoms generally occur in men at a mean age of 45-50 years, much less evident in women. Given the marked tendency to transformation into malignant process, renal cyst requires constant monitoring over this new formation for the timely adoption of measures is not always possible due to the long absence of symptoms (for hidden).

General description renal cyst

cysts are formed when we are considering the phenomenon, cavernous, a capsule with serous content in it. In general, the cyst can be completely different shape, it can be as simple and at the same time have a cavity, and a multi-chamber, that is complex, with a large number of cavities. Mainly large such formation does not reach, respectively, can be added on the basis of general trends and statistics that cysts very rarely reach the size of 10 cm or more.

Despite the fact that a cyst in the kidney, Urology diagnosed quite often, especially the development of neoplasms etiology has not yet completely understood. On this account, there are some theories. Given the fact that there are many varieties of cysts, as well as the fact that they often manifest themselves in an atypical form and that, in addition to other related factors, patients rather late to seek help of a doctor, be a common etiological basics of disease is not yet available .

As one of the most common causes of provoking the formation of cysts, isolated pathology of renal tubule through which usually takes place in its normal condition the flow of urine. When congestion urine tubule it begins to stagnate, which in turn leads to the formation of the characteristic protrusion walls, the latter gradually begins to transform into a cyst. Regarding the definition of the factors against which can develop stagnation of urine, then you can designate any type of kidney disease or dysfunction. For example, it may be tuberculosis, urolithiasis (kidney stones), cancer process, the inflammatory process in the environment of the renal pelvis (meaning a disease, such as pyelonephritis) and any injury in the field

In the main kidney cyst contains serous fluid, in addition, it may be an admixture of blood, kidney liquid pus. Certain cysts are formed in parallel with the internal tumor formations localizable directly on their walls.

Depending on the origin, renal cyst may be congenital or acquired. In addition to such a division, a condition can be described as polycystic kidney disease, where such cysts on parenchyma appears in plural numbers.

Kidney Cysts: classification

As we have already indicated, renal cysts may be congenital or acquired by the nature of their manifestations.

Congenital cystic formation may occur in the following forms:

  • Solitary renal cyst . Such a cyst as benign or shape it round or oval. No constriction, compounds have ducts. Inside serous fluid, in some cases it contains the admixture in the form of pus or blood. Basically, this cyst occurs only with the defeat of one kidney after previous injury. About half the time, this type of cysts detected in several locations in the affected kidney. A characteristic feature of this form is that it often appears as a solitary cyst of the left kidney and diagnosed in the vast majority of men.
  • multicystic . In this case, it is a congenital lesion of one of his kidneys. This form of disease is diagnosed very rarely. With the development of this type of severe kidney disease apparently converted to a solid cyst that, in view of the scale of destruction, deprives it of its inherent functions (in other words, a kidney cyst becomes incapacitated). In addition, in some cases in this variant of development of pathology in the affected kidney can be kept small size of a healthy portion, which is provided by the production of small amounts of urine that accumulates in the cyst cavity.
  • Polycystic . In this case, both are subject to the defeat of the two kidneys. Because of multiple cysts appearance changed so much that they begin to resemble grapes. Mostly genetic predisposition is a major factor in provoking the development of polycystic kidney disease.
  • Spongy kidney (otherwise – multicystic medulla) . Congenital, accompanied by the expansion of the renal tubules with concomitant formation of multiple cysts of small size.
  • A dermoid cyst is a kidney (or dermoid) . Congenital form of pathology, accompanied by the formation of cysts, in which the components are detected ectoderm. As such components may be considered fat, epidermis, bone incorporation, hair, etc.
  • cysts in the kidneys due to hereditary syndromes associated (tuberculous sclerosis, Zellweger syndrome, Meckel syndrome, etc.) .

As we have already designated, renal cyst can also be acquired pathology, and in this case it also has its own peculiarities. First of all, acquired cystic formations are characterized by the fact that their appearance is preceded by injury kidney or renal disease to date of a particular type (tuberculosis, parasitic infections, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, heart and so on.).

When considering the total cysts reader can note that kidney disease can be either unilateral or bilateral, that defines them as a separate position in the general classification.

Depending on the location of the kidney cyst may correspond to the location of the following options:

  • subcapsular renal cyst – a cyst in this case is under the fibrous layer of the affected organ;
  • intraparenchymal renal cyst – a cyst is focused directly into the parenchyma (organ tissue);
  • cortical renal cyst – a cyst location falls on the body of sin;
  • parapelvikalnaya renal cyst – a cyst location within the body of the sinus area.

Depending on the particular structure of kidney cysts, neoplasms can be sheeted (solid, mono) or multi-chamber – in this case the tumor has a partition.

Depending on the contents of the cyst and there is a separate distribution:

  • Serum serous content – has a transparent texture, yellowish tinge. Serous substance is a liquid that penetrates the cysts through the capillary wall.
  • hemorrhagic content – it is about blood in the contents of the cyst. This content appears in the tumors formed on the background of a heart attack or kidney injury.
  • pus – are, as we know, there is an admixture of pus in the cystic formation, which may be the result of infectious diseases the patient.
  • Calcinates – often detected and the contents of the cysts in the form of stones.

Cystic neoplasms may also meet certain categories, which are determined according to their features:

  • I category. This category includes the most common form of benign cysts, they are at ultrasound study detected without any difficulty.
  • II category. This category includes benign tumors, with certain changes and membrane. In this case, we are talking about infected giperdensivnyh or calcified their forms, they reach a diameter of 3 cm.
  • III category. These cysts are predisposed to malignancy. Because of this, there is a thickening their shells and membranes. To detect such a cyst in the X-ray is extremely difficult. In addition, treatment of cysts in this case must be carried out immediately by appropriate surgical intervention.

In summary, you can simultaneously designate and the main causes of kidney cysts that somehow affect their features:

  • tumor formation in the kidney (one or both);
  • pyelonephritis;
  • sand, stones in the kidney;
  • kidney injury;
  • renal tuberculosis;
  • intoxication (including medication);
  • ischemic or venous renal infarction;
  • hematoma kidney failure fibrous capsule body.

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