For long-term complications of ovarian cysts include those States that have long remain latent and asymptomatic. But they are no less dangerous.
This is a complications such as malfunction of the ovary, infertility and malignancy (development of cancer).
Why is the malfunction of the ovary.
With the growth or long-lasting presence of cysts, normal healthy ovarian tissue begins to disappear. The main reason of this violation of its normal blood supply. Ovarian cyst, sometimes reaching impressive size, compresses the feed the ovarian vessels, significantly reducing its power.
From this normal tissue that secrete hormones, is replaced with the so-called connective tissue, which is less sensitive to lack of oxygen and nutrients.
The development of this process depends on the size of the cyst and how long it exists in the ovary. The larger the cyst, and the longer it is present in the body, the less likely you are to save the ovary. The process of substitution of healthy ovarian tissue is transparent, because the second ovary “tries for two.” This makes timely diagnosis.
Unfortunately, during the operation often enough I have to see a picture: on the cyst is stretched thin flap of connective tissue – what was once a ovarian. The conventional surgical approach in this situation is to remove the ovary. But, in my opinion, this volume operations, especially at a young age, is not correct. Despite the visual absence of normal ovarian tissue, sometimes there are some cells that continue to produce hormones, though not in such quantity. Even if it’s not much, but better than nothing. One never knows what will happen in the future with the second ovary, so I always try to fight for each ovary to the end.
Part of the complication arises from the previous one. Although this mechanism is not the only one. Growing up, the cyst may compress not only the ovaries but also located near the fallopian tube. This leads to mechanical obstruction of the fallopian tubes, and may be the cause of ectopic pregnancy.
Another possible reason for infertility can be hormonal changes caused by the presence of cysts in the ovary.
However more often to problems with the pregnancy causes of endometriotic cyst. This is due to the characteristics of the course of endometriosis.
For what would most effectively address the issue of infertility, during surgery, surgeons are not limited to removal of cysts. Usually investigate the patency of the fallopian tubes, isbecause all the lesions of endometriosis, division of adhesions.
Malignant transformation remains the most formidable and frightening complication of ovarian cysts. About 70% of cases of ovarian cancer develops from benign tumors. This process is usually a long, stretched in time by a few years. Of great importance is the structure of the cyst. For example, papillary cistadenomy to 50% of cases of malignant growth, while other cysts are only 2-3%.
A High risk of malignancy is for the surgeon only justification for expansion of operations. Correct volume of surgery for primary tumor detection can significantly improve the prognosis for a full recovery.
How to avoid long-term complications.
The Above complications at different ages have different meanings. Young women at the forefront of infertility and decrease the number of active ovarian tissue. In older age increases the incidence of malignant growth.
But despite this the most important rule to prevent all of the above complications is a timely operation. Not need years to hope for a miracle, to try different methods of treatment. An ovarian cyst is a tumor. And every tumour is subject to mandatory removal.