Functional Ovarian Cysts: Symptoms and Treatment

November 3, 2015


Functional Ovarian Cysts – a fairly common disease. In modern gynecological practice like illness is not considered a rarity. Moreover, some women often do not even know the existence of such a problem.

Even though most of the tumor is quite harmless, under certain conditions, it may pose a threat to the health of the patient. That is why today, many are interested in more information about the causes, symptoms and treatments for this disease. So how dangerous can be a cyst in the ovary? Is it possible to diagnose the disease on their own?

What is the functional cyst?

A functional ovarian cyst is a benign entity which is formed after the oocyte maturation. In most cases, such a structure has a rounded shape with smooth walls. Moreover, it can be located both on the surface and inside the body.

The size of functional ovarian cysts may be different. In most cases it does not exceed a diameter of a few millimeters. However, often during the inspection found tumors larger – sometimes they can reach a diameter of 15-20 centimeters, which naturally leads to dangerous consequences.

It is worth noting that a small cyst in the ovary is rarely a threat to the health and lives of women. Quite often, tumors dissolve and disappear by themselves after 2-4 complete menstrual cycle. Danger cyst is large, as there is always a risk of rupture. Moreover, a large tumor compresses the surrounding tissues, causing discomfort and a variety of disorders.

The main reasons for the formation of cysts

Why form a functional ovarian cyst? Causes and mechanisms of such pathologies before the end is still not understood. On the other hand, researchers and doctors were able to identify several factors that may contribute to the development of such tumors.

Of course, one of the main reasons is the hormonal failure – namely, increasing the amount of estrogen in the body. Accordingly, hyperestrogenia leads to the development of anovulatory cycle, which contributes to the appearance of cysts.

Of course, there are many risk factors, each of which in one way or another affect the levels of sex hormones and the impact on the immune system. In particular, the functional ovarian cyst often occurs after a recent myocardial abortion. In addition, the causes include uncontrolled hormonal agents (including drugs and emergency contraception). On the impact of the reproductive system, and some diseases of the thyroid gland.

On the other hand, causes the formation of cysts may be more commonplace. For example, it is proved that the risk of these neoplasms is increased in the presence of acute and chronic infections in the pelvic organs, including sexually transmitted diseases. Consequently, a risk factor is the frequent change of sexual partners.

On the endocrine system also affects the way of life of the patient. In particular, heavy physical exertion, mental strain, the constant lack of sleep, frequent stress can not but affect the work of the female body.

By the way, sometimes a functional cyst is detected even in baby girls. This phenomenon is due to the influence of hormones on the body of the mother to child during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

According to statistics, such diseases are most susceptible women of childbearing age. However, formation of cysts are not immune and patients with early menopause.

Where often formed cyst?

According to statistics, the functional cyst of the left ovary in gynecological practice is more common. This phenomenon is associated with certain physiological characteristics of female reproductive system. The fact that the oocyte maturation and follicular rupture often occurs in the left appendage. In addition, next to the ovary located bowel loops, where through the thin walls of the infection can easily pass on the tissue of the reproductive organs.

A functional cyst of the right ovary is diagnosed less often. Moreover, its formation can also be associated with the transition of intestinal infection. Moreover, it is located on this side of the appendix – the right variety of diseases of the uterus (including cystic) is often paired with appendicitis.

The cyst and its main varieties

Today, there are two main kinds of cysts in the ovaries:

  • A follicular cyst is formed when the follicle after the oocyte maturation is not interrupted. Thus, the cell remains inside, while the cavity follicle starts accumulating liquid.
  • A functional ovarian cyst (yellow body) begins to form after the egg has matured and left the follicle. Cystic tumor located on the site of the corpus luteum, which for one reason or another have not regressed.

Functional ovarian cysts: symptoms

In most cases, these tumors do not cause any visible symptoms – they are diagnosed during a routine ultrasound accidentally. Signs of functional ovarian cysts appear if this structure becomes large. This discomfort is associated mainly with the compression of tissues or organs.

So what is the clinical picture is accompanied by functional ovarian cyst? Symptoms in this case are as follows:

  • First, as a rule, there are pains in the abdomen. It should be noted that pain is usually localized on the part of the ovaries. Discomfort may have varying degrees of intensity – some women suffer from chronic pain, while others notice them only occasionally.
  • As the cysts growing feeling of pressure and gravity at the bottom of the abdomen and groin.
  • What other symptoms are accompanied by a functional ovarian cyst? Latency monthly in this case is also possible. Moreover, changing their character. For example, some women become painful menstruation and abundant. Others say a patient uncharacteristically scarce, smearing vaginal discharge.
  • By the way, spotting may appear in the middle of the menstrual cycle – is another alarming sign.

In any case, the presence of these symptoms should seek medical advice. The earlier a problem is detected, the easier it is to fix it.

What complications are possible?

As mentioned, the small size of the cyst is not a threat to women’s health. However, if the diameter of the tumors reached 5-7 cm, it becomes dangerous. What is the risk associated? There are several major complications of cystic.

In particular, the frequent result is a dramatic increase in torsion cysts. This condition is usually accompanied by sharp pain, which intensified during walking, running, jumping, sexual intercourse and other physical activity. But if the patient is put to one side (the one where the affected ovary), the condition is improving slightly.

On the other hand, we should not exclude the probability of rupture of the cyst. This disease is very dangerous, because the damage to the walls of the cyst leads to the release of its contents. The effects of the gap can be attributed rapidly progressive peritonitis. The patient in this condition should be immediately taken to the surgical ward. Without skilled medical care is high probability of death.

What are the symptoms of rupture of the cyst? First of all there is a sharp, almost unbearable “knife-like” pain in the abdomen, and by the intensity of the affected ovary it more. The abdomen of the patient, as a rule, strongly strained. In some cases the appearance of atypical vaginal discharge.

In addition, the symptoms include fever, which can not be solved by conventional antipyretic drugs. A woman complains of weakness and lethargy. There may be nausea and vomiting. The skin of the patient pale, the pulse becomes weak, and the blood pressure drops sharply. In severe cases, there are a variety of disorders of consciousness.

Another, no less dangerous manifestation of disease is bleeding. In some cases, it is small – women do not even pay attention to the weak spotting. On the other hand, it can cause cystic really massive, life-threatening bleeding. In addition to the heavy discharge symptoms may include weakness, drowsiness, pale skin, weak pulse, confusion.

There is another very unpleasant complications – ovarian tissue necrosis. This pathology is extremely dangerous, as is accompanied by a gradual loss of cells, their decay and excretion into the blood products of their metabolism. To necrosis characteristic clinical picture of severe intoxication – persistent fever, aches and pains in the body, weakness, dizziness, confusion, and so on.. In such cases, surgery is a must, as likely to develop sepsis and death.

What if necrosis caused functional left ovarian cyst? Treatment in this case is conducted according to the general scheme. First, you will need abdominal surgery, during which a doctor will remove the affected areas of tissue (sometimes performed excision of the entire ovary). The rehabilitation period involves taking antibiotics.

The main diagnostic methods

Put a definitive diagnosis can only attending gynecologist. Notice a large cyst doctor may even during normal, routine gynecological examination. Smaller cysts can be seen on ultrasound of the pelvic organs. This procedure helps to determine the number of lesions, their size and exact location.

In some cases, additional tests are required. It is not always possible to determine whether the detected structures are benign. Therefore, in cases of dispute biopsy – during laparoscopy, the doctor removes tissue samples, which are then sent to a laboratory study.

Functional ovarian cysts: treatment by conservative means

Only after careful diagnosis of the attending gynecologist will be able to choose the most appropriate means. Which therapy requires a functional ovarian cyst? Treatment in this case depends on the size of tumors, growth, as well as the presence of certain complications.

For example, a single small tumors may not require specific treatment. Therefore patients doctor strongly recommends some time to undergo regular inspections – this would allow time to notice changes.

In other cases, used for the treatment of hormonal drugs, including modern contraceptives. Charts and graphs receive is determined by the attending physician. Such agents block the activity of FSH, resulting in temporarily suspended the process of egg maturation. Thus, the affected ovary is the time for the regeneration of their own structures. In addition, the reception of contraceptives is the prevention, as preventing the formation of new cysts. By the way, today is considered to be a fairly effective means of hormonal drug “Djufaston”, which helps to align the hormones and reduce the size of the cyst.

When the presence of inflammation in the course of therapy may further include antimicrobial and immunomodulatory drugs. And, of course, recommend that patients comply with preventive measures, in particular, take care of proper nutrition, healthy sleep and rest, avoid stressful situations and so on. D.

Surgical removal of cysts

Unfortunately, not every case of conservative treatment gives the expected effect. Fortunately, surgery offers several procedures to get rid of the tumors.

If you have a small cyst can be done puncture. With the help of a long needle the doctor through a puncture of the abdominal wall extracts the liquid contents of the neoplasm. Liquid subsequently sent to a laboratory for research. Cyst wall is glued together. By the way, this procedure always involves some risk, so physicians have resorted to this method only if you believe in the successful outcome. On the other hand, the relapse of such treatment at fairly high.

Remove the cysts larger sizes is carried out by laparoscopy. This technique has several advantages. In particular, for excising tumors no need to open the abdominal cavity – will be sufficient to two small incisions.

In the most severe cases require laparotomy – a full abdominal surgery. The indications for this procedure is the presence of large tumors, suspected malignant degeneration of tissues, as well as cysts rupture, severe inflammation accompanied by suppuration. Only this kind of surgery, the doctor gives you a complete overview and allows us to solve the main problems (eg, clean cloth on the festering mass).

Dangerous if a functional cyst during pregnancy?

Of course, today, many expectant mothers interested in questions about whether the combined functional ovarian cysts and pregnancy. Indeed, in many cases, the presence of cysts found in the first ultrasound of a pregnant woman.

It should be immediately noted that the presence of such tumors is not an obstacle for a normal pregnancy. Functional ovarian cysts small size does not require specific treatment. Moreover, often under the influence of hormonal changes such tumor resolves itself by the end of the second or third trimester.

The danger of a cyst is large, as there is a risk of its rupture. That is why a pregnant woman with a similar diagnosis must be registered with a doctor and not to skip planned survey. If necessary, the gynecologist is required to select the most effective, but gentle treatment.

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