Diagnosis of thyroid cysts
The main method of diagnosis – a visualization using ultrasound. With the help of ultrasound determines the size, the structure of the cyst and the surrounding healthy tissue. This method allows not only to accurately diagnose a cyst, but differential diagnosis with adenoma, nodular goiter and other diseases.
cyst biopsy is performed to determine the type of cyst and exclude malignancy. When taking a biopsy using a fine needle, which is held in a cyst under ultrasound. The procedure is not particularly difficult and is performed under local anesthesia. For a more accurate diagnosis of the taking of the material it is made of several parts of the cyst or cysts different. By the nature of the cyst contents obtained by biopsy, judged on its type:
- The yellow, purple or dark brown fluid in the cyst indicates uncomplicated;
- The presence of pus in the cyst evidenced by the accession of inflammation.
The samples were investigated microscopically to check for cancer cells. Cyst of thyroid tumors characterized by the presence of glandular cells unchanged. These results are obtained in 60% of cases.
for Malignant confirmed on biopsy in 5% of cases. Border result noted in 20% of cases. Thus the majority of patients during the second study, the cancer cells are detected. If insufficient study of biopsy material taken is uninformative and requires re-examination.
The puncture the cyst may be accompanied by its complete evacuation followed by introduction into the cavity of sclerosing agents. This method can significantly reduce the number of surgical procedures and to achieve recovery at an early stage. The puncture is performed under ultrasound guidance, which provides a low percentage of unsuccessful attempts and injuring healthy tissue. When analyzing the contents of the cysts focuses on the presence of abnormal cells that indicate the development of malignant cancer process.
As additional methods are applied:
- The computer tomography to determine the structure of large cysts;
- Angiography for the prevention of vascular complications;
- Laryngoscopy with the appearance of hoarseness or other voice changes;
- Bronchoscopy to assess the condition of the trachea at the Pumping cysts to large size;
- Control the level of thyroid hormones.
The symptoms of thyroid cysts
Patients with small cysts (up to 3 mm) does not note any signs of the disease and feel perfectly healthy people. Most of them know about the disease only after identifying their doctor at the examination. As the size of the thyroid gland cysts symptoms become more pronounced. The first manifestation of progressive cyst is a “lump” in his throat. It is also the first time a cyst can be suspected by the appearance of increased education on the neck, which can easily be felt through the skin. Other common symptoms include:
- Shortness of breath (due to compression of the trachea cyst);
- The pain in cancer can spread to the jaw and ear;
- The pain on swallowing or inability to swallow food;
- Change the timbre of the voice (is rare, due to compression of the enlarged cyst specific nerve fibers).
In the development of the disease have identified a number of steps:
- The stage of formation of cysts. Asymptomatic. The disease at this stage is found incidentally during routine inspection;
- Growth Stage. In case of heavy fluid volume in the cavity cysts its size gradually increases, which leads to the development of characteristic symptoms. The presence of the disease the doctor may suspect already by visual inspection. The diagnosis is easily confirmed by means of laboratory tests;
- Step resorption. If satisfactory condition of the immune system disease is independently subjected to scarring and cyst without causing serious disorders of the body.
When malignant course of the disease cysts can degenerate into cancer. Such formations have a dense consistency and their rapid uncontrolled growth. It is also noted that the malignant course of the disease often accompanied by changes in voice due to the rapid growth of cysts.
A common accompanying symptom of the disease is dysfunction of the thyroid gland with increased or decreased production of hormones. As a result of abnormalities in the prostate in progressive course of the disease, patients have chronic fatigue, weight loss, deterioration of the immune system. With the development of these symptoms should undergo further study in the presence of a malignant cancer process.
When the complicated flow of cysts in the altered tissue swelling occurs and the development of bacterial flora, which leads to inflammatory changes and the accumulation of pus. Symptoms of infection are joined growing acute pain in the neck, swelling, fever. The characteristic symptom is the increase in cervical lymph nodes.