Dermoid cyst: Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

October 5, 2015


In recent years, the medical establishment treats more cancer patients. Oncology is becoming the most common misfortune of the XXI century. The tumor has a lot of species. It is very important time to detect inflammation, the disease is not passed in a more serious form. One variety of tumors with a positive trend of treatment is a dermoid cyst.

What is a dermoid cyst

Such a disease, such as a cyst, is a pathologic disorder in the body to form cavities having wall. Development of the tumor occurs in various organs and for different reasons. One type of cystic nodules is a cyst dermoid. This benign tumor formed from germ layers, containing particles of skin, teeth, hair follicles, nails, sebaceous glands and pigment cells. Teratoma often has a size of 5 to 7 cm. But there are cases when it can reach more than 15 cm in diameter.

In most cases, it has a rounded shape and leg, using which the attachment to the body. When sprouting teratoma is more elongated.

The development of dermoid cyst in the ovaries

The most common dermoid cyst in women. At the same time there is no specific age group, prone to this disease. The disease can affect a completely different organs. But the most common ovarian dermoid cyst. Teratoma is a sprawling swelling in the genital area of ​​women. In case of violation of the ovaries, they are retained embryonic beginnings, which become the basis for filling the cyst cavity.

What causes a dermoid cyst on the ovaries

Medicine still can not give a precise answer to the question, why develop a dermoid cyst of the ovary. The causes of tumor formation presumably have a basis for the formation of reproductive organs is still in the embryonic period. In ovarian failure occurs, the ectoderm and is stored in the underdeveloped state. When a woman’s body carries stress in the form of hormonal failure (during menopause, pregnancy or puberty), or injury of the body, the beginnings of germ layers are activated and begin to develop tumors.

Many women are horrified by that might look like a dermoid cyst of the ovary. Tumor “pouch” may have an elastic surface and varying thickness of the shell.


This form cysts are asymptomatic until then, until it reaches a size of more than 7cm. It can be discovered at an early stage and at regular visits to the gynecologist. The doctor is able to diagnose until the cyst does not reach large sizes. Symptoms of ovarian dermoid cysts occur at a time when the tumor reaching large size, begins to put pressure on the sex glands and organs located near. In most cases, the build-up is subjected to the influence of inflammatory bladder and intestines. In this regard, much more frequent desires in a toilet, manifested coprostasis and intestinal, and increasing the cyst becomes noticeable visually, sticking out of the skin on the side from which the patient is the ovary.

Notable symptoms suggestive of cancer development are: severe pain in the abdomen, and the preservation of elevated body temperature. If there is a torsion leg, the symptoms worse, they added nausea, vomiting and dizziness.

Dermoid cystic formation in the left ovary

In medical practice, it found that the highest frequency teratoma occurs on the right ovary. This is due to the fact that parts of organs vary considerably between them and the main functional activity it carries the right ovary. It is much better supplied with blood and usually ovulates. It is for this reason that a hormonal imbalance is reflected slightly on the left side. In this regard, a dermoid cyst of the left ovary – it is a rare case. Dermoid, develops on the ovary that is not growing to a large size. As a rule, the volume reaches its maximum 4 – 6 cm. However, despite this, after the diagnosis of the disease must be the removal of the affected organ. The complexity of this form of the disease is the lack of any symptoms. Therefore, if you do not go to the gynecologist, the cyst can exist in a woman’s body for years. The consequence of such a tumor, dermoid cyst, there is a problem with the ability to become pregnant.

Dermoid cyst of the ovary. Diagnostics

As mentioned above, the identification of tumor occurs when a manual examination, the gynecologist. But despite the diagnosis, the doctor to establish a variety of cyst is not enough to inspection. Therefore, the patient is sent to the passage of a number of surveys.


Ultrasound examination of the possibility of giving more precise information about the development of dermoid cyst. Ultrasound determines the size of teratomas, shell thickness, the content of its cavity, as well as the possible presence of its inclusions. Diagnosis and stem tumors. Using Doppler, medical specialist has the ability to determine what are the characteristics of blood flow in cystic “bag.”


In some cases it is necessary diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging. The survey is carried out by exposure to high-frequency magnetic radiation on the genitals. The aim is to obtain images at different angles onkovospaleniya.


With the help of beam computed tomography can determine the stage of the disease, since there is a small risk that the cyst can develop into malignant and metastatic tumors.

Analysis for tumor markers

The essential is the delivery of the analysis for the presence of tumor markers in the blood. The patient in this case passes the standard procedure of delivery of blood from a vein. The analysis determined the presence of cancer cells in blood and their specificity.

Histological examination

The procedure for histological examination is done by a fence fragment cyst puncture the posterior fornix of the vagina. This diagnosis is considered the most reliable. Once the doctor gets the results of the patient’s condition, he prescribes treatment.


Dermoid, develop on the ovaries, unlike many forms of cystic tumors not amenable to medical treatment. Most growths have the ability to dissolve under the influence of drugs. But this is different and dermoid cyst of the ovary. Treatment of this complex disease is only possible by surgical intervention. Since teratoma contains in its cavity fibroids, bone, fat and other particles, the effect of her medications is futile. Treatment for dermoid cyst is possible only by removing it.

Before you assign an operation to remove the build-up, the doctor carefully examining all the factors that play a role in choosing the method of operations. Since the disease can develop in adolescence and in adulthood, it is an important point, which takes into account the expert in determining the method of treatment. A very important role is played by the size of the cyst and its localization. Removal of dermoid ovarian cyst is carried out in an emergency mode, if there was a rupture of the tumor or torsion legs. Special attention is given to patients with malignancy, and pregnant women. It is taken into account and the presence of inflammatory processes of the affected organ.

Methods of removing cysts

Given the above factors, the surgeon decides how to be removed dermoid cyst of the ovary. The operation is carried out to complete cleaning of the organism from inflammation.

  • If the patient is of childbearing age, the removal is carried out by kistoektomii. Cut only outgrowth. Sometimes with cystic “bag” is deleted and the affected portion of the ovary.
  • In the case where the patient has entered menopause, then apply more drastic measures – the injured undergoes a complete removal of the ovary. Possible elimination of inflammation by removing the two bodies. This method is called oophorectomy. If the cyst has reached a large size and damage to reproductive organs were subjected to the next, the surgeon performs adnexectomy. The result of the operation by this method is the elimination of the tumor along with the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • When carrying out emergency operations often subjected to removal of all of the internal reproductive organs of women. Since in such cases, the tumor reaches a size too large, and the inflammation spreads to all nearby organs.

In most cases, surgery is performed laparoscopically. Depending on the health of the patient, the expert determined the decision to perform laparotomy or laparoscopy. Once removed dermoid cyst of the ovary, the patient is assigned to maintenance therapy with hormonal levels. For a long time, and possibly throughout their lives, a woman will use hormonal drugs. One of the nuances of the postoperative period is the problem of conceiving a child. Pregnancy operated patients there can come no earlier than six months. When the disease develops in women who are pregnant, removal of teratoma is only for large amounts of build-up or in an emergency. If the tumor develops slowly, it is desirable to get rid of it after birth.

The effects of the operation

If the cyst is detected and removed at an early stage, the effects of surgery are small, and a few weeks later the woman starts to lead normal life. However, there are cases, mainly when the tumor was launched when the consequences are very serious disease:

  • may relapse in the partial or incomplete removal of the “bag”;
  • hormone disruptions and as a consequence, the emergence of other health problems;
  • the development of malignant tumors and metastases;
  • problems with reproduction.

dermoid cyst of the head

A dermoid cyst on his head is the weak development of a benign outgrowth. This form of the disease has no specific location. Development is possible on the eyelids, lips, eyes, nose, neck, nasolabial folds, ears, and in the nasopharynx, oral cavity and on the scalp.

Just like other types of dermoid tumors, this inflammation develops symptoms. However, when a cyst reaches a larger size, it becomes visible on the skin. Treatment is carried out only by surgery. Removal of the tumor is made as soon as possible after detection. Exceptions are children under five years of age, because the operation is done under general anesthesia. If the cyst does not threaten the life of the child, the doctor is waiting to achieve the desired age, and then carries out the operation.


A dermoid cyst – a congenital disease, which is caused by impaired development of the fetus in the embryonic period. Over the last year the percentage of patients with dermoid cyst doubled. Perhaps a big role in this is played by environmental influences or wrong way of life of the pregnant woman, the fruit of which subsequently suffers from this disease.

To determine the presence of inflammation to the manifestation of the disease is very difficult. That is why prevention, prevents the development of cysts does not exist.

To avoid serious consequences, should be regularly examined by a doctor. If dermoid detected at an early stage, the impact of its removal virtually no effect on the future life of the patient. Upon detection of the build-up in the body, you need to follow all the instructions of the doctor and be sure to agree to the operation. In no case can not be treated dermoid cyst folk ways, since effective results can be achieved only by surgery.

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